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"Bill Nye, 'Science Guy,' Open to Jail Time for Climate ChangeSkeptics"
On 4/23/2016 3:05 PM, Siri Cruise wrote:
In article , Hot Lantis wrote:
Your climate statement was not historically loaded, you said:
"Some climates are unique because they are caused by unique atmospheres"
That implies that in the larger realm of extant micro-climates (which we
do have) you seem to feel there is a causal factor derived from more
than one atmosphere.
Always double down on stupid.
If that's what works for you dear...
I'm sorry you had to immolate your own credibility so abruptly.
I really was looking forward to running you until you lathered up and
In article , Hot Lantis wrote:
The great rust out occurred because it was the first time free oxygen was
Complete non sequitur.
When plants occupied the land, they had an explosion of growth that
carbon dioxide until the earth froze.
And damn the Kt boundary layer and that pesky indicator - Iridium, eh liar?
All over North America, the K-T boundary clay contains glass spherules
(Figure 18.2, bottom), and just above the clay is a thinner layer that
contains iridium along with fragments of shocked quartz. It is only a
few millimeters thick, but in total it contains more than a cubic
kilometer of shocked quartz in North America alone. The zone of shocked
quartz extends west onto the Pacific Ocean floor, but shocked quartz is
rare in K-T boundary rocks elsewhe some very tiny fragments occur in
European sites. All this evidence implies that the K-T impact occurred
on or near North America, with the iridium coming from the vaporized
asteroid and the shocked quartz coming from the continental rocks it hit.
The K-T impact crater has now been found. It is a roughly egg-shaped
geological structure called Chicxulub, deeply buried under the sediments
of the Yucatán peninsula of Mexico (Figure 18.3). The structure is about
180 km across, one of the largest impact structures so far identified
with confidence on Earth. A borehole drilled into the Chicxulub
structure hit 380 meters (more than 1000 feet) of igneous rock with a
strange chemistry. That chemistry could have been generated by melting
together a mixture of the sedimentary rocks in the region. The igneous
rock under Chicxulub contains high levels of iridium, and its age is 65
Ma, exactly coinciding with the K-T boundary.
Sixty-five million years ago about 70% of all species then living on
Earth disappeared within a very short period. The disappearances
included the last of the great dinosaurs. Paleontologists speculated and
theorized for many years about what could have caused this "mass
extinction," known, as the K-T event (Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass
Extinction event). Then in 1980 Alvarez, Alvarez, Asaro, and Michel
reported their discovery that the peculiar sedimentary clay layer that
was laid down at the time of the extinction showed an enormous amount of
the rare element iridium. First seen in the layer near Gubbio, Italy,
the same enhancement was soon discovered to be world wide in that one
particular 1-cm (0.4-in.) layer, both on land and at sea. The Alvarez
team suggested that the enhancement was the product of a huge asteroid
impact. On Earth most of the iridium and a number of other rare elements
such as platinum, osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium are believed
to have been carried down into Earth's core, along with much of the
iron, when Earth was largely molten. Primitive "chondritic" meteorites
(and presumably their asteroidial parents) still have the primordial
solar system abundances of these elements. A chondritic asteroid 10 km
(6 mi.) in diameter would contain enough iridium to account for the
worldwide clay layer enhancement. This enhancement appears to hold for
the other elements mentioned as well.
Since the original discovery, many other pieces of evidence have come to
light that strongly support the impact theory. The high temperatures
generated by the impact would have caused enormous fires, and indeed
soot is found in the boundary clays. A physically altered form of the
mineral quartz that can only be formed by the very high pressures
associated with impacts has been found in the K-T layer.
Geologists who preferred other explanations for the K-T event said,
"show us the crater." In 1990 a cosmochemist named Alan Hildebrand
became aware of geophysical data taken 10 years earlier by geophysicists
looking for oil in the Yucatan region of Mexico. There a 180-km
(112-mi.) diameter ring structure called "Chicxulub" seemed to fit what
would be expected from a 65-million-year-old impact, and further studies
have largely served to confirm its impact origin. The Chicxulub crater
has been age dated (by the 40Ar/39Ar method) at 65 million years! Such
an impact would cause enormous tidal waves, and evidence of just such
waves at about that time has been found all around the Gulf.
One can never prove that an asteroid impact "killed the dinosaurs." Many
species of dinosaurs (and smaller flora and fauna) had in fact died out
over the millions of years preceding the K-T events. The impact of a
10-km asteroid would most certainly have been an enormous insult to life
on Earth. Locally, there would have been enormous shock wave heating and
fires, tremendous earthquake, hurricane winds, and trillions of tons of
debris thrown everywhere. It would have created months of darkness and
cooler temperatures globally. There would have been concentrated nitric
acid rains worldwide. Sulfuric acid aerosols may have cooled Earth for
years. Life certainly could not have been easy for those species which
did survive. Fortunately such impacts occur only about once every
hundred million years.